Energy Innovations 2015

$19.95 at Amazon.com.

Because it seems likely that there is money to be made by reducing fossil fuel use, and energy use in general, there is currently an intense amount of entrepreneurial activity surrounding all aspects of our energy supply and usage. This book is an Front Cover 6x9 border EI2015attempt to make some sense of the overwhelming amount of information about this activity streaming down the web (and in the scientific and engineering journals). It is a result of three months in early 2015 of combing through entrepreneurial websites, news items in the press, and a variety of other sources (all well documented in the book) to see what new and exciting developments are occurring in energy. The result is a fascinating look at the types of changes in our energy mix in the near future through over 250 vignettes of innovative energy projects, many in their earliest stages, organized by type of energy activity being considered.

Sections of the book include energy efficiency, energy storage, improving the grid, novel energy applications, photovoltaics, solar thermal, hydro/tidal/wave energy, wind, geothermal, nuclear, vehicles, biofuels and synfuels, hydrogen, hydraulic fracturing, carbon sequestration, energy governance, and energy finance and economics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FORWARD…………………………………………………… 21

by Emil Morhardt

ENERGY EFFICIENCY……………………………………. 23

Coolerado’s Air Conditioners Save Energy With HMX Technology. 23

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Apple Announces Data Centers run on Renewable Energy……….. 24

by Mariah Valerie Barber

ORNL Creates Low Cost Energy Sensors………………………………. 25

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Sabien’s Boilers Significantly Reduces Energy Consumption……. 26

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Nest: Smart Tech That Pays for Itself…………………………………… 27

by Hannah Brown

Copenhagen, the New City of Lights……………………………………. 29

by Hannah Brown

A Light That Lasts Until You’re Middle Aged………………………….. 30

by Hannah Brown

Powerley: Tracking Your Energy Use with an App………………….. 31

by Hannah Brown

Three Secrets to Energy Efficiency………………………………………. 32

by Jessie Capper

Making Wastewater Treatment Plants’ Energy Consumption Net-Zero  34

by Jessie Capper

LiquiGlide: A Non-Stick Solution to Waste……………………………. 35

by Alex Elder

Energy Efficient Window Shades………………………………………… 36

by Alex Elder

Improving Energy Efficiency in the Ceramics Industry…………….. 36

by Alex Elder

Potential $6 Billion Annual Savings Opportunity via LED Outdoor Lighting     37

by Alexander Flores

10 for Tendril…………………………………………………………………. 38

by Alexander Flores

Surpass with Good Glass………………………………………………….. 39

by Alexander Flores

Energy-Friendly Furnace………………………………………………….. 40

by Alexander Flores

Stanford’s New Energy System…………………………………………… 41

by Dylan Goodman

EPA’s New Energy Star Home Advisor………………………………….. 42

by Dylan Goodman

Earthtronics new LED Bulbs………………………………………………. 43

by Dylan Goodman

MIT Energy Initiative………………………………………………………… 44

by Dylan Goodman

Staples Recycling and Energy Calculator……………………………… 45

by Dylan Goodman

New Water Heater Standards…………………………………………….. 46

by Dylan Goodman

SolarWindow Technologies……………………………………………….. 47

by Dylan Goodman

Calculating the Benefits: Green Roofs…………………………………. 47

by Alison Kibe

Using Sound to Detect Air Infiltration Into Buildings………………. 49

by Alison Kibe

Data Center Energy Consumption……………………………………….. 50

by Briton Lee

Food at What Cost?…………………………………………………………. 51

by Briton Lee

Purifying the Plastic Process…………………………………………….. 52

by Briton Lee

Cooling Buildings by Radiating Heat to Outer Space………………. 53

by Emil Morhardt

Better Sensors in Buildings to Decrease Energy Consumption…. 54

by Niti Nagar

Semitrex Launch Promises to Increase Power Supply Energy Efficiency, Eliminate Phantom Load         56

by Trevor Smith

Cut Down Energy Loss with Essess’s Infrared Technology………… 57

by Abigail Wang

Is Gaming the Future of Saving Energy?………………………………. 58

by Abigail Wang

Hurting the Environment by Going Green…………………………….. 59

by Abigail Wang

ENERGY STORAGE……………………………………….. 61

Google Rapidly Strives to Improve Its Battery Technology………… 62

by Mariah Valerie Barber

A Very Special Clay…………………………………………………………. 63

by Hannah Brown

A Tesla Battery for Your Home?………………………………………….. 64

by Nour Bundogji

TREASORES Develops Transparent Electrodes with Superior Performance       65

by Nour Bundogji

Researchers at Clemson University Develop a Super Battery……. 66

by Nour Bundogji

An Upcoming Method of Energy Storage……………………………….. 68

by Alex Elder

Ice Energy: As Cool as Energy Storage Gets…………………………… 69

by Alexander Flores

Start Up Tumalow—Reducing Peak Energy and Costs……………… 70

by Alison Kibe

Should You Buy Organic? For Batteries, Yes………………………… 71

by Alison Kibe

Everything is Better Deep-Fried…………………………………………. 72

by Briton Lee

Threading Energy……………………………………………………………. 74

by Briton Lee

Breathing New Life into Aluminum Batteries…………………………. 75

by Briton Lee

Energy Storage Under Regulatory Uncertainty……………………….. 76

by Emil Morhardt

Used Electric Vehicle Batteries for Home Energy Storage?……….. 76

by Emil Morhardt

Used EV Batteries to Stabilize the Grid………………………………… 77

by Emil Morhardt

Beefing up a Wind Turbine with Compressed Air………………….. 78

by Emil Morhardt

Compressed Air Hybrid Vehicles?………………………………………. 79

by Emil Morhardt

Trackside Flywheel Energy Storage in Light Rail Systems………… 80

by Emil Morhardt

Off the Grid, Batteries Not Included……………………………………. 81

by Emil Morhardt

Flywheel Versus Supercapacitor for Running a Small Electric Ferry 82

by Emil Morhardt

Wearable Supercapacitors: Making Devices More Flexible………. 83

by Emil Morhardt

Hybrid Energy Storage for CubeSats……………………………………. 83

by Emil Morhardt

Supercapacitors save Windpower Batteries………………………….. 84

by Emil Morhardt

Storing Wind Energy on Islands is Risky, Economically…………… 85

by Emil Morhardt

Energy Stored in the Wire?……………………………………………….. 85

by Emil Morhardt

Fast Discharge Batteries: Electric Eels…………………………………. 86

by Emil Morhardt

Battery Imaging Sheds Light on Future Renewable Energy……….. 87

by Niti Nagar

California’s Lack of Storage for Clean Energy………………………… 88

by Shannon O’Neill

California Needs to Invest in Renewable Energy Storage Technology 89

by Melanie Paty

Lithium-Air Batteries: The Next Battery Revolution?……………….. 90

by Chad Redman

Liquid Air Energy Storage………………………………………………….. 91

by Chad Redman

Redox Flow Batteries: For Grid Level Storage………………………… 92

by Chad Redman

Flywheel Kinetic Energy Storage: Energy in Motion…………………. 92

by Chad Redman

Pumped Hydroelectric Storage: Putting Gravity to Work………….. 93

by Chad Redman

IMPROVING THE GRID…………………………………… 95

New York Plan to Open a Smart Grid Laboratory……………………. 95

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Microgrid Micromanagement……………………………………………… 96

by Briton Lee

Consequences of the Electric Grid’s Inefficiency……………………. 97

by Shannon O’Neill

The Future of Electricity: Batteries and the Grid……………………. 99

by Ali Siddiqui

Europe’s Power Grid to be Increasingly Interconnected: Norway Plans Deep-Sea Cables to Germany, England  99

by Trevor Smith

Crossing Borders Through Electricity………………………………… 100

by Abigail Wang

NOVEL ENERGY APPLICATIONS…………………….. 103

ORNL Creates Low Cost Energy Sensors…………………………….. 103

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Blue Energy Pilot Plant Opens in the Netherlands……………….. 104

by Mariah Valerie Barber

New Printable Circuits Change the Future of Wearable Tech….. 105

by Alex Elder

Extending the Range of Wireless Charging………………………….. 106

by Briton Lee

Peanuts Packing a Punch……………………………………………….. 107

by Briton Lee

Electricity From Low-Level Heat………………………………………… 108

by Emil Morhardt

Bacteria Electrify Sewage, No Methane Needed……………………. 109

by Emil Morhardt

Microbial Electricity from Cyanide!……………………………………. 110

by Emil Morhardt

Jumping-Droplet Electrostatic Energy Harvesting…………………. 111

by Emil Morhardt

Wearable Energy-Generating Cloth May Replace Batteries……… 111

by Niti Nagar

Synthetic Diamonds Manipulated to be Sensitive Magnetic-Field Detectors     112

by Niti Nagar

SolePower: Solving the Mobile Energy Problem……………………. 114

by Shannon O’Neill

Heat Pumps Placed in Frigid Bodies of Water can Nevertheless Offer Clean, Cheap Heating   115

by Trevor Smith

PHOTOVOLTAICS……………………………………….. 117

China and Kenya Partner to Promote Solar Energy Technology… 117

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Inspired by Nature: The Bionic Leaf………………………………….. 118

by Hannah Brown

Copenhagen, the New City of Lights………………………………….. 120

by Hannah Brown

PosiGen is Making Solar Accessible………………………………….. 121

by Hannah Brown

From Sunshine Comes Potable Water………………………………… 122

by Hannah Brown

iGrenEnergi Develops Technology to Boost Productivity of Solar Panels           123

by Nour Bundogji

A Fully Transparent Photovoltaic Cell………………………………… 125

by Nour Bundogji

A Self-Powered Video Camera that Can Run Indefinitely without an External Power Supply      126

by Nour Bundogji

Collaboration for Efficient and Reliable Solar Tracking Technology for Commercial Businesses            127

by Jessie Capper

Pursuing the Next Frontier for Solar Technology: Northrop Grumman and Caltech’s Space Solar Initiative        128

by Jessie Capper

Solar Power in Space……………………………………………………… 130

by Alex Elder

 

An Off-Grid Renewable Energy Generator…………………………… 131

by Alex Elder

Jim Ayala and Hybrid Social Solutions: Innovation in Distributing Solar

by Liza Farr

Solar Fabric is the Second Generation of Solar Technology……. 133

by Liza Farr

Solé Power from MiaSolé…………………………………………………. 134

by Alexander Flores

New Solar Farm in China………………………………………………… 135

by Dylan Goodman

Perovskite Solar Cells……………………………………………………. 136

by Dylan Goodman

Solar Power Duo: A Perovskite and Silicone Based Semiconductor 137

by Alison Kibe

Material Architecture: Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Applications for Energy          138

by Alison Kibe

Expanding the Frontiers of Energy: Pay-as-You-Go Energy…….. 139

by Alison Kibe

Steps in Solar: The Hydrogen Super Emitters………………………. 140

by Alison Kibe

One Step Closer to Cheaper Solar Power……………………………. 141

by Briton Lee

Measuring Impacts of Solar Development on Mojave Desert Plants 142

by Emil Morhardt

Solar Panels Might Not Help CO2 Reduction Any Time Soon…… 144

by Emil Morhardt

One of the Nation’s Biggest Solar Farm Opens in California…… 145

by Shannon O’Neill

Debate over Buying or Leasing Solar Panels in Residential Homes 146

by Shannon O’Neill

Growing Competitiveness of Solar Energy…………………………… 147

by Shannon O’Neill

Community Solar Gardens and Other Shared Solar Power Systems Expected to Rise in 2015  148

by Melanie Paty

The Cutting Edge of Solar………………………………………………… 149

by Chad Redman

A Spherical Solution to Solar Power………………………………….. 150

by Chad Redman

The Fight for Home Solar Systems…………………………………….. 151

by Abigail Wang

SOLAR THERMAL………………………………………… 153

BrightSource’s Ivanpah CPS Bird Fatalities Controversy……….. 153

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Crescent Dunes Solves the Solar Farm Bird Death Problem with Energy Storage         154

by Liza Farr

Solar Plant Development Impeded by Tax Credit Reductions….. 157

by Niti Nagar

HYDRO/TIDAL/WAVE ENERGY……………………… 159

Clean Current Utilizes Marine Tidal Turbines to Produce Renewable Energy    159

by Mariah Valerie Barber

Tidal Lagoon Power Reveals Plans to Build World’s First Lagoon Power Plant  160

by Nour Bundogji

Carnegie Wave Energy……………………………………………………. 161

by Dylan Goodman

Converting Low-Head Hydropower into Air Pressure/Electricity. 162

by Emil Morhardt

Will Windpower Increase Hydroelectric Environmental Impacts? 163

by Emil Morhardt

Micro-Hydroelectricity in Building Water-Supply Pipes………… 164

by Emil Morhardt

Fishing Boat Transformed to Harness Energy from Ocean’s Waves 165

by Niti Nagar

Portland Plans to Generate Electricity through Water Pipes……. 166

by Niti Nagar

Difficulty of Harnessing the Ocean’s Great Power………………… 167

by Shannon O’Neill

CorPower’s Recent Breakthrough in Wave Energy Technology… 168

by Melanie Paty

Environmentalists Sue Governmental Agencies in an Effort to Help Pallid Sturgeon in Montana Rivers  169

by Trevor Smith

Proposed Tidal Lagoon Power Plant Could Provide Enough Energy to Power all of Wales          170

by Trevor Smith

Making Big Waves in Alternative Energies Energy………………… 171

by Abigail Wang

WIND POWER…………………………………………….. 175

Kenyan Government Solves Energy Issues with Largest Wind Power Project in Africa   175

by Jessie Capper

The Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy……………………………….. 176

by Alex Elder

Energy Kites: Airborne Wind Turbines……………………………….. 178

by Alex Elder

Smart Source with Skystream………………………………………….. 178

by Alexander Flores

Don’t Like Turbines? Try Flying a Kite……………………………….. 179

by Alison Kibe

Beefing up a Wind Turbine with Compressed Air………………… 180

by Emil Morhardt

Mini Piezoelectric Wind Turbine………………………………………. 181

by Emil Morhardt

Solar and Wind Producers in Japan, Portugal, Design Floating Power Plants  182

by Trevor Smith

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY……………………………….. 185

Iceland’s Deep Drilling Geothermal Energy Project……………….. 185

by Shannon O’Neill

Renewable Energy Resource Revolution in Nicaragua……………. 186

by Shannon O’Neill

AltaRock’s Enhanced Geothermal Systems………………………….. 187

by Ali Siddiqui

The United Forest Service Hopes to Lease Washington National Forest for Geothermal Development    188

by Trevor Smith

New Fluid Promises to Increase Efficacy of Enhanced Geothermal Systems      189

by Trevor Smith

NUCLEAR POWER……………………………………….. 191

Laser Power Systems……………………………………………………… 191

by Dylan Goodman

Generating Power from Nuclear Wastes……………………………… 192

by Alison Kibe

Scientists at the National Ignition Facility Bring Us One Step Closer to Fusion Power 193

by Niti Nagar

The Key to Unlimited Energy: Nuclear Fusion and its Formidable Challenges  195

by Chad Redman

Major US Nuclear Energy Provider Fights for Clean Energy Money in Order to Survive            196

by Trevor Smith

VEHICLES…………………………………………………. 199

Those Cool Electric Cars…………………………………………………. 199

by Hannah Brown

Hydrogen Powered Trams Make Their Way in China…………….. 200

by Hannah Brown

Solar Impulse, the Solar Airplane, Journeys Around the World. 202

by Nour Bundogji

Drone Technology Now Used to Monitor, Preserve, and Restore the Environment         203

by Jessie Capper

The Future of Car Racing: Electrifying the World of Motorsports 204

by Jessie Capper

“Bio-bus” Runs on Treated Sewage and Food Waste…………….. 206

by Liza Farr

Green Cars are Being Replaced by SUVs: The Need for Cheap.. 207

by Liza Farr

Piston Power………………………………………………………………… 208

by Alexander Flores

Compressed Air Hybrid Vehicles?…………………………………….. 209

by Emil Morhardt

Nissan’s Electric Vehicle Fleet’s Promising Future in Energy Storage and the Private Sector     210

by Melanie Paty

H2FC SUPERGEN: UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research at its Finest  212

by Chad Redman

The Economic Benefit of Strict Auto Emission Regulations……… 212

by Chad Redman

China to use Electric Vehicles to Solve Energy Variability Problem 213

by Ali Siddiqui

BIOFUELS AND SYNFUELS……………………………. 215

Solazyme Algal Biofuel Production in the United States…………. 215

by Mariah Valerie Barber

The Zero-Waste Zoo: Using Animal Waste as Fuel………………… 216

by Alex Elder

Solazyme Seeks Solutions……………………………………………….. 217

by Alexander Flores

Algae from Wastewater for Biofuels…………………………………… 218

by Dylan Goodman

Our Future in Feces: Vehicles Fueled by Biomethane………….. 219

by Briton Lee

Algae Produce More Biofuel When Starved of Nitrogen, But Why? 220

by Emil Morhardt

Biomass to Butanol via Engineered Yeast…………………………… 221

by Emil Morhardt

Study Shows Flawed Experiments used to Support Policies for “Low-Carbon” Biofuels            223

by Niti Nagar

How to Make Profits from Garbage…………………………………….. 224

by Niti Nagar

One Step Closer to Renewable Propane……………………………… 225

by Niti Nagar

Harnessing Energy from Household Plants…………………………. 226

by Niti Nagar

The Success of Incentivizing Renewable Energy Projects from Landfills           227

by Shannon O’Neill

The Importance of Wood as a Renewable Energy Resource……… 228

by Shannon O’Neill

Does Biofuel Have a Viable Future?………………………………….. 229

by Ali Siddiqui

Pee-Power Could Save Lives……………………………………………. 230

by Abigail Wang

Gas-to-Liquids Technology………………………………………………. 231

by Alex Elder

GreatPoint Energy Makes a Great Point………………………………. 232

by Alexander Flores

Waste and Fuel with InEnTec…………………………………………… 233

by Alexander Flores

HYDROGEN……………………………………………….. 235

Toshiba Opens Hydrogen Energy Research Center in Tokyo…… 235

by Mariah Valerie Barber

The Better Way to Produce Hydrogen Fuel………………………….. 236

by Nour Bundogji

Hydrogen Hungry Bacteria Bring Artificial Leaf One Step Closer to Viability    237

by Liza Farr

Ideal Shift from Gasoline to Hydrogen Fuel Cells…………………. 238

by Alexander Flores

H2FC SUPERGEN: UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research at its Finest  240

by Chad Redman

Feeding Cars With Plants……………………………………………….. 241

by Abigail Wang

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION     243

Why Fracking Works (and Sometimes Doesn’t)……………………. 243

by Emil Morhardt

Why Fracking Might Not Work for as Long as We Would Like…. 245

by Emil Morhardt

Tracking Fracking Fluid with Molecular Tracers………………….. 246

by Emil Morhardt

Instead of Flaring Natural Gas at Fracked Oil Wells, Use it to Treat Fracking Fluid     247

by Emil Morhardt

Using Supercritical CO2 Instead of Water for Fracking…………. 248

by Emil Morhardt

Heavy Oil Production using Fracking and Microwaves………….. 249

by Emil Morhardt

Fracking: Fix it or Forget It? Global Gas and Oil Prices Falling. 250

by Emil Morhardt

Fracking in South Texas: Spatial Landscape Impacts……………. 251

by Emil Morhardt

Try Not to Live Too Close to a Fracked Well………………………… 252

by Emil Morhardt

Biotic Impacts of Fracking………………………………………………. 253

by Emil Morhardt

Methane Emissions in Colorado Exceed EPA Estimates; Fracking? 254

by Emil Morhardt

Unexpectedly High Methane Concentrations over Pennsylvania Shale Gas Fields Too  255

by Emil Morhardt

How Long will the Fayetteville Fracking Play Last?……………….. 256

by Emil Morhardt

Iceland’s Turning Greenhouse Gases Into Stone………………….. 257

by Hannah Brown

Underground Storage of CO2: Attempts to Eliminate Carbon Emissions            258

by Nour Bundogji

ENERGY GOVERNANCE……………………………….. 261

Nigerians Push for Renewable Energy to Solve Power Crisis…… 261

by Nour Bundogji

The New European Energy Union Faces Some Critiques………… 262

by Nour Bundogji

National Parks or Energy: Kenya’s Dilemma………………………… 265

by Jessie Capper

A Call for Holistic and Immediate Action: The World’s Peaking Renewable Resources  266

by Jessie Capper

Can California Continue to Lead in the Renewable Energy Industry?.. 267

by Jessie Capper

Psychology’s Role in Being Green…………………………………….. 269

by Alex Elder

Hamburg is an Industrial City Reborn with a Renewable Energy Economy        270

by Liza Farr

Obama Makes Moves to Advance Clean Energy in Place of Dirty Fuel  272

by Liza Farr

Texas Town Move to 100% Renewable Energy Bodes Well for American GHG Reduction          273

by Liza Farr

Energy Star Initiative……………………………………………………… 275

by Dylan Goodman

Starting Small: Shifting into Renewable Energy in South Korea.. 276

by Alison Kibe

A Greener Apple……………………………………………………………. 277

by Briton Lee

Obama’s Solar Energy Initiative………………………………………… 278

by Shannon O’Neill

Obama and Modi Negotiate Renewable Energy in India…………. 279

by Melanie Paty

California’s Investment in Clean-Tech is Paying Off……………… 280

by Melanie Paty

Effects of Utility Scale Solar Energy on Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwest   281

by Melanie Paty

Clean Energy in India’s 2015–2016 Budget Proposal…………… 282

by Melanie Paty

Costa Rican Electricity in Q1 2015 has been 100% Renewable 284

by Melanie Paty

Delays in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan…….. 285

by Melanie Paty

The Future of Climate Change in Hilary Clinton’s 2016 Campaign 286

by Melanie Paty

Hawaii Set on Being the First State to Run on 100% Renewable Energy          287

by Melanie Paty

How far have we come?…………………………………………………… 288

by Ali Siddiqui

Apple and Google put their Green Thumbs Down…………………. 289

by Ali Siddiqui

Costa Rica Using Renewable Energy only for Past 75 Days…….. 290

by Ali Siddiqui

The Battle between Ohio and Solar Energy…………………………. 291

by Ali Siddiqui

Quadrennial Energy Review…………………………………………….. 292

by Ali Siddiqui

Drought-Ridden California Looks to Renewable Energy to Keep the Water Flowing       293

by Trevor Smith

Major Energy Leaders Look to Lift United States Embargo on Oil Exports          294

by Trevor Smith

New European Energy Union Hopes to Loosen Russia’s Grip on Its Energy Market        295

by Trevor Smith

Will Sage Grouses Stop Green Energy Development?……………. 296

by Abigail Wang

Protecting Alaskan Wilderness At What Cost?…………………….. 298

by Abigail Wang

The Unseen Problems with Nevada’s Air Quality………………….. 299

by Abigail Wang

A Green Makeover for France…………………………………………… 301

by Abigail Wang

Crikey! Australia Could Reach 100% Renewables……………….. 302

by Abigail Wang

ENERGY FINANCE AND ECONOMICS……………….. 305

Crowdfunding Goes Where No Government Has Gone Before: Caring about the Environment   305

by Hannah Brown

Citi Deploys $100 Billion on Clean Energy…………………………. 306

by Nour Bundogji

Bloomberg Philanthropies Building Greener Cities………………. 308

by Jessie Capper

Making Solar Energy an Option for All Families…………………… 309

by Jessie Capper

Are lower oil prices really a concern for the renewable energy industry?         310

by Jessie Capper

The Cost of Solar Power………………………………………………….. 311

by Alex Elder

Price Premiums for Homes with Rooftop Solar……………………… 312

by Liza Farr

Google Makes New Clean Energy Purchases After Abandoning R&D Efforts      313

by Liza Farr

Rise in Global Renewable Energy Investment Reveals Market Trends.. 315

by Liza Farr

Colorado Utilities Deploy Renewable Energy Because of Lower Costs  316

by Liza Farr

Potential $8-Billion Green Energy Initiative for Los Angeles…… 318

by Alexander Flores

Funding for Energy Initiatives in Africa: US-Africa Clean Energy Finance Initiative      320

by Alison Kibe

Crowdsourcing to Eliminate Energy Poverty………………………… 321

by Alison Kibe

Changes in Clean Energy Investment in 2014: End of Year Recap 322

by Melanie Paty

Global Consequences of Crude Oil Price Reductions……………. 323

by Ali Siddiqui

Are Energy Credits Enough?…………………………………………….. 324

by Ali Siddiqui

About the Authors………………………………………… 327

Index……………………………………………………….. 329

 

 

 

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